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APA (American Psychological Association) is a citation style that is most commonly used for citing sources in social science articles.
In-text citation of sources in APA Citation
When referring to a book or a quotation from a book, you should cite APA in the format author-date-page number, for example (Freud, 1927). The author’s last name and year of publication should be used when citing the source in the text. If the author is already mentioned in the sentence, no need to mention it again, just insert the year of publication in parentheses after the author has been mentioned.
The page number should follow before the sentence period, eg. (p.00)
According to Freud (1927), “religion is comparable to an infantile neurosis” (p. 53).
Freud (1927) compares religion to an infantile neurosis (p. 53).
He said: “Religion is comparable to an infantile neurosis” (Freud, 1927, p. 53) on which I do not agree.
Page cited from APA works
At the end of your article, you should have a Works Cited page in APA Citation. It should start on a new page and be titled “References”. It should be centered at the top of the page. Do not bold, underline or quote the title. Some use an APA Works generator, but doing it manually is usually done.
General rules of the reference list in the APA citation:
The spacing should be double.
The entry indent must be a negative indent.
List entries alphabetically by author’s last name.
If you have several sources from the same author, order them starting with the oldest publication.
Only capitalize major words for journal titles. Do not capitalize prepositions/conjunctions unless they are the first word of the title/subtitle.
For books, chapters or articles in books and magazines, or web pages, capitalize only the first letter of the title and subtitle.
Capitalize proper nouns.
Italicize titles of longer works such as books and journals.
Titles of shorter works such as poems, stories, journal articles, and essays should not be italicized, underlined, or enclosed in quotation marks.
Examples of APA Citations
BOOKS in the APA citation
Author’s last name, first name initial(s). (Year of publication). Title of the work: capital letter also for the subtitle. City, State Abbreviation: Publisher.
If not in the United States, just write the city.
An author :
Moran, A. (2012). Sport and Exercise Psychology: A Critical Introduction (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.
If edition other than the first, just add the edition in parentheses after the title of the work.
Type authors by their surnames and initials; use the ampersand instead of the word “and”.
Kitchener, KS and Anderson, SK (2012). Foundations of ethical practice, research and teaching in psychology and counseling. London: Psychology Press.
Three to seven authors:
Separate authors with a comma. The last author must be preceded by an ampersand instead of “and”.
Keith-Spiegel, P., Whitley, BE, Balogh, DW, Perkins, DV and Wittig, AF (2002). The ethics of teaching: a collection of cases. London: Psychology Press.
More than seven authors:
First mention the first six followed by a “…” then mention the last author. No need to use the ampersand.
Keith-Spiegel, P., Whitley, BE, Balogh, DW, Perkins, DV, Miller, FH, Harland, AA,… Wittig, AF (2002). The ethics of teaching: a collection of cases. London: Psychology Press.
Chapter or article in an edited book:
Only the first word of the chapter title and subtitle should be capitalized. Only the first word of the book should be capitalized. For multiple authors, follow the format above. For multiple publishers, separate with a comma and an ampersand, if applicable.
Seligman, M. (1992). Positive psychology, positive prevention and positive therapy. In Snyder, CR, & Lopez S. (Eds.), Gender Handbook of Positive Psychology. (pp. 107-123). Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania.
NEWSPAPER ARTICLES in APA style citation
The journal is italicized with all important words in capitals. The title of the article should have only the first word capitalized.
The basic format:
Author’s last name, YY (Year of publication). Title of article or chapter. Journal, Volume (number if available), Pages.
Brandon, N. (2012). Predicting the persistence, non-persistence, and recent onset of nonmedical use of opioids and stimulants in adolescents. Addictive Behaviors, 37(6), 716-721.
Just like how you would quote APA on a book. Separate with an ampersand.
Brandon, N., & Rogers, P., (2012). Predicting the persistence, non-persistence, and recent onset of nonmedical use of opioids and stimulants in adolescents. Addictive Behaviors, 37(6), 716-721.
For three or seven authors, follow the list of authors as you would the book to be cited in APA. The same rule applies for seven or more authors.
Use “nd” if no date is available. Include the full URL where readers can find it.
Smith, D. (2008). Where can happiness be found. Available from URL_GOES_HERE
NEWSPAPERS in the APA quote
Newspaper articles can usually fit on several pages. If there is only one page, use p. For multiple pages, use pp. for an APA citation.
Single page: p. A2
several pages: pages C2, C5-C7
Mention the full date (year, date of the month) e.g. (2006, March 26)
Example of an APA citation:
Richards, S. (2007, April 28). Alcohol policies around the world. Washington Post, pages 2A, 3A.
Include full URL
Tierney, J. (2011, May 16). A new gauge to see what lies beyond happiness. The New York Times. Excerpt from URL_GOES_HERE
MAGAZINE in the APA quote
Basic format (printing):
Borgia, M. (2000, April 9). Skip the course of global schools. Newsweek, 135, 26-28.
Use np if no publisher name is given and nd if no publication date is available. Add the full URL to quote in APA.
Ronalds, TM, Peters, A., & Ricci, D. (2008). Abnormal eating in adolescents. Cosmopolitan Online, 10(3), 35-36. Extract of
WEBSITE in APA citation
Include date of access as websites are often updated. Add the full site URL.
Use nd if no publication date is given.
Author, A. (date if available). Title of document/ article/ or page. Excerpt from URL_GOES_HERE
Evans, E. (2010, May 5). Soup for the soul. Excerpt from URL_GOES_HERE
Evans, E. (nd). Soup for the soul. Excerpt from URL_GOES_HERE
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